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Training frequency & reliability studies

Effect of Training Frequency and Specificity on Isometric Lumbar Extension Strength

Spine
1990 Volume 15, Number 6

James E. Graves, PhD, Dan Foster, BS, David M. Carpenter, MS, Arthur Jones, Michael Pollock, PhD, Scott H. Leggett, MS, Rosemaria Vusoso, MA

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

This study demonstrates that training at low frequencies of 1X/2WK and 1X/WK are as effective in developing lumbar extension strength as training at greater frequencies of 2-3X/WK. These results differ from other more commonly used muscle groups which show greater increases in strength with more frequent training sessions per week.

In addition, subjects who trained their lumbar extensors 2-3X/WK complained of chronic fatigue, a sign of over training. The large strength increases with the low volume and frequency of training in this study demonstrate that efficiency of the MedX lumbar extension machine. The dramatic improvements in isolated lumbar extension strength over the 12 week study period indicate that these muscles were initially deconditioned and posses a large potential for strength development.

Effect of 12 and 20 Weeks of Resistance Training on Lumbar Extension Torque Production

Physical Therapy
1991 Volume 71, Number 8

David M. Carpenter, James E. Graves, Michael L. Pollock, Scott H. Leggett, Dan Foster, Bryon Holmes, Michael N. Fulton

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

The magnitude of strength gained, particularly in the extended ROM, demonstrates that the lumbar extensor muscles are relatively weak and show a large potential for strength improvement. The flattening of the strength curve over the 20 week
study period shows range-specific changes in strength, demonstrating the need for full ROM strength assessment. Had peak torque only been used to describe strength improvement (as in many studies) it would have been concluded that the lumbar extensor muscles are able to gain 17% in strength over a 20 week period, and the more than 120% increases in the extended ROM would have gone unreported. This would have greatly misrepresented the potential for lumbar extensor strength improvement.

Frequency and Volume of Resistance Training: Effect on Cervical Extension

Strength
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
October 1993 Volume 7

Michael L. Pollock, PhD, James E. Graves, PhD, Marcas M. Bamman, MS, Scott H. Leggett, MS, David M. Carpenter, MS, Cecily Carr, MS, Joe Cirulli, Jan Matkozich, Michael Fulton, MD

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

A single set of cervical extension exercise is required to attain a full range-of-motion increase in strength as long as the training frequency is at least two times per week.

Effect of Reduced Frequency of Training and Detraining on Lumbar Extension Strength

Spine
December 1999 Volume 17, Number 12

Jacqueline T. Tucci, MS, David M. Carpenter, MS, Michael L. Pollock, PhD, James E. Graves, PhD, Scott H. Leggett, MS

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

This study demonstrates isometric lumbar extension strength can be maintained for up to 12 weeks with a reduced frequency of training as low as once every 4 weeks when the intensity and the volume of exercise are maintained. Therefore, a patient could return to the clinic for exercise training one time per month to maintain the strength gains made during their clinical program.

Effect of Resistance Training Volume on Strength and Muscle Thickness

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
1996 Volume 28, Number 10

David Starkey, Michael Pollock, Yoshi Ishida, Michael A. Welsch, William Brechue, James E. Graves, Matthew S. Feigenbaum

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

One set of high intensity resistance training was as effective as three sets for increasing knee extension and knee flexion isometric torque and muscle thickness in previously untrained adults.

Isometric Torso Rotation Strength: Effect of Training Frequency on Its Development

Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
January 1997 Volume 78

Pamela L. DeMichele, MS, Michael L. Pollock, PhD, James E. Graves, PhD, Daniel N. Foster, MS, David Carpenter, MS, Linda Garzarella, MS, William Brechue, PhD, Michael Fulton, MD

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

Post-training dynamic strength was not different between training frequencies of 2 and 3 times per week. Therefore, training the rotary torso muscles 2 times per week is recommended.

Quantitative Assessment and Training of Isometric Cervical Extension

Strength
The American Journal of Sports Medicine
1991 Volume 19, Number 6

Scott H. Leggett, MS, Michael L. Pollock, PhD, David M. Carpenter, MS, Michael N. Fulton, MD, James E. Graves, PhD, Michael Shank, MS, Bryon Holmes, MS

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

Repeated measures of isometric cervical extension strength are highly reliable and can be used for the quantification of isometric cervical extension strength through a 126 degree range of motion. Also, training the cervical extensors 1 day per week can significantly increase isometric cervical extension strength through most of the range of motion.

Strength Testing Can Identify Malingering

The Journal of Workers Compensation
1992 Volume 2, Number 1

Vert Mooney, MD, Scott H. Leggett, MS, Bryon L. Holmes, MS, Scott Negri, MD

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

Consistent submaximal efforts with visual feedback can be achieved by a subject anxious to deceive the tester. However, with reliable equipment and the potential to manipulate the test circumstances, the apparent consistent performance can document a patient’s willful deception.

Limited Range-of-Motion Lumbar Extension Strength Training

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
1992 Volume 24, Number 1

James E. Graves, PhD, Scott H. Leggett, MS, Cecily K. Fix, Michael L. Pollock, PhD, David M. Carpenter, MS, Michael N. Fulton, MD

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

Limited range of motion (ROM) lumbar extension training through a 36 degree ROM is effective for developing strength through 72 degrees of lumbar extension.

Quantitative Assessment of Full Range-of-Motion Isometric Lumbar

Extension Strength
Spine
April 1990 Volume 15, Number 4

James E. Graves, PhD, David M. Carpenter, MS, Arthur Jones, Michael N. Fulton, MD, Michael Pollock, PhD, Scott H. Leggett, MS, Michael MacMillan, MD

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

Repeated measures of isometric lumbar strength are highly reliable and can be used for the quantification of isometric lumbar strength through a range of motion.

Quantitative Assessment of Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle Endurance

Journal of Athletic Training
September, 2003 Volume 38, Number 3

Udermann, BE, Mayer JM, Graves JE, Murray SW
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Study Outcomes & Clinical Relevance:

Both the MedX Lumbar Extension Machine and the Roman Chair are useful tools when assessing lumbar muscular endurance.